437 – Emperor Valentinian III begins his reign over the Western Roman Empire. His mother Galla Placidia ends her regency, but continues to exercise political influence at the court in Rome.
1613 – The first English expedition (from Virginia) against Acadia led by Samuel Argall takes place.
1698 – Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine.
1776 – The Continental Congress adopts a resolution severing ties with the Kingdom of Great Britain although the wording of the formal Declaration of Independence is not approved until July 4.
1822 – Thirty-five slaves are hanged in South Carolina, including Denmark Vesey, after being accused of organizing a slave rebellion.
1890 – The U.S. Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act.
1917 – The East St. Louis riots end.
1921 – World War I: U.S. President Warren G. Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Imperial Germany.
1937 – Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan are last heard from over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first equatorial round-the-world flight.
1962 – The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.
1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places.
1976 – Fall of the Republic of Vietnam; Communist North Vietnam declares their union to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
2002 – Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon.
2005 – The Live 8 benefit concerts takes place in the G8 states and in South Africa. More than 1,000 musicians perform and are broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks.
2013 – The International Astronomical Union names Pluto’s fourth and fifth moons, Kerberos and Styx.
419 – Valentinian III, Roman emperor (d. 455)
1492 – Elizabeth Tudor, English daughter of Henry VII of England (d. 1495)
1908 – Thurgood Marshall, American lawyer and jurist, 32nd Solicitor General of the United States (d. 1993)
1937 – Richard Petty, American race car driver and sportscaster
1939 – Paul Williams, American singer and choreographer (The Temptations) (d. 1973)
1566 – Nostradamus, French astrologer and author (b. 1503)
1914 – Joseph Chamberlain, English businessman and politician, Secretary of State for the Colonies (b. 1836)
1961 – Ernest Hemingway, American novelist, short story writer, and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1899)
1964 – Fireball Roberts, American race car driver (b. 1929)
1972 – Joseph Fielding Smith, American religious leader, 10th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1876)
1973 – Betty Grable, American actress, singer, and dancer (b. 1916)